Frequently Asked Questions
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- What is the difference between adipose-derived stem cells and umbilical cord-derived stem cells?
- What are the Tools of Regenerative Medicine?
- Cell Banking
- Our Technology
- NonEmbryonic Adult Stem Cells
- What is regenerative Medicine?
- What is a Stem Cell?
- How do Adult Stem Cells Heal?
- What Diseases and Problems can be Treated?
- Is Our Procedure FDA-approved?
- Does San Francisco Stem Cell Treatment Center use any Embryonic Stem Cells?
- Why Does SFSCTC Take a Multispecialty Treatment Approach to Regenerative Medicine?
- What Types of Specialties are Represented at SFSCTC
- Why do Patients Request Stem Cell Treatment?
- Once a Candidate is selected for treatment, how does SFSCTC Obtain a Person’s Stem Cells?
- Why Does SFSCTC use Liposuction Fat Rather Than Bone Marrow as a Source of Stem Cells?
- How is Fat Obtained?
- How Does SFSCTC Control Sterility in the Processing of the Stem Cells?
- Does SFSCTC use Stem Cells From any Other Animal Source or Person?
- Why do Some Stem Cell Facilities Around the World Require Days to Weeks Before Removal of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Until Reinsertion into the Patient?
- Some Stem Cell Treatment Centers Make Extraordinary Claims About Their Success in the Treatment of Various Problems. Why Doesn’t SFSCTC?
- Can Stem Cells Treat Cancer?
- Can Stem Cells Cause Cancer?
- What About Patients with Known Cancers?
- Are There Reports of Autologous Adipose Derived Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Harming Any Humans or Animals?
- What Claims Are Currently Made By SFSCTC About What Stem Cell Therapy Can do for You?
- Are Any Biological Agents Added to the Stem Cells such as Medications or Mixtures Containing Plasma Enriched Platelets?
- How Are the Cells Deployed into the Patient?
- Can I be Expected to Improve After Stem Cell Treatment at SFSCTC?
- How Long Does it Take to See Improvement?
- Is Everyone a Candidate?
- Are any Patients Automatically Excluded?
- Who Decides Who is Eligible?
- Does a Candidate Have to Participate in Research to Receive Treatment at SFSCTC?
- What are Some Diseases That SFSCTC is Definitely Not Treating at this Time?
- What Are the Costs of Consultation and Treatment?
- What Does the Cost of the Procedure Include?
- Can Extra Stem Cells be Saved For Future useShould an Immediate Need Arise?
- How Many Injections are Required for Success?
- How Can I Obtain This Procedure?
What is the difference between adipose-derived stem cells and umbilical cord-derived stem cells?
Umbilical cord stem cells are derived exclusively from the umbilical cord after delivery of a baby, which is the safest and least-invasive method of extraction available.
Adipose-derived stem cells come from a patient’s fat tissue, (typically from their “love handles”, which is surgically extracted via liposuction under local anesthesia, and considered a come-and-go procedure, taking approximately 3-4 hours.
What are the Tools of Regenerative Medicine?
Traditionally, we have used various medications and hormones to limit disease and help the body repair itself. For example, hormone replacement therapy has, in many cases, shown the ability to more optimally help the immune system and thus help us repair diseased or injured tissues. Genetic research is an evolving area where we will eventually learn and utilize more ways of specifically dealing with gene defects causing degenerative disease. Stem cell therapy is another rapidly evolving and exciting area that has already shown considerable promise in treating many degenerative conditions.
We are currently in the process of setting up FDA approved protocols for stem cell banking in collaboration with a reputable cryo-technology company. This enables a person to receive autologous stem cells at any time in the future without having to undergo liposuction which may be inconvenient or contraindicated. Having your own stem cells available for medical immediate use is a valuable medical asset. Provisions are nearly in place for this option and storage of your own stem cells obtained by liposuction at SFSCTC or from fat obtained from cosmetic procedures performed elsewhere should be possible in the near future.
San Francisco Stem Cell Treatment Center uses adipose derived stem cells for deployment & clinical research. Early stem cell research has traditionally been associated with the controversial use of embryonic stem cells. The new focus is on non-embryonic adult mesenchymal stem cells which are found in a person’s own blood, bone marrow, and fat. Most stem cell treatment centers in the world are currently using stem cells derived from bone marrow. A recent technological breakthrough enables us to now use adipose (fat) derived stem cells. Autologous stem cells from a person’s own fat are easy to harvest safely under local anesthesia and are abundant in quantities up to 2500 times those seen in bone marrow. Clinical success and favorable outcomes appear to be related directly to the quantity of stem cells deployed. Once these adipose derived stem cells are administered back in to the patient, they have the potential to repair human tissue by forming new cells of mesenchymal origin, such as cartilage, bone, ligaments, tendons, nerve, fat, muscle, blood vessels, and certain internal organs. Stem cells’ ability to form cartilage and bone makes them potentially highly effective in the treatment of degenerative orthopedic conditions. Their ability to form new blood vessels and smooth muscle makes them potentially very useful in the treatment of peyronies disease and impotence. Stem cells are used extensively in Europe and Asia to treat these conditions. We have anecdotal and experimental evidence that stem cell therapy is effective in healing and regeneration. Stem cells seek out damaged tissues in order to repair the body naturally. The literature and internet is full of successful testimonials but we are still awaiting definitive studies demonstrating efficacy of stem cell therapy. Such data may take five or ten years to accumulate. At the San Francisco Stem Cell Treatment Center we are committed to gathering those data by conducting sound and effective clinical research. In an effort to provide relief for patients suffering from certain degenerative diseases that have been resistant to common modalities of treatment, we are initiating pilot studies as experimental tests of treatment effectiveness with very high numbers of adipose derived stem cells obtained from fat. Adipose fat is an abundant and reliable source of stem cells. San Francisco Stem Cell Treatment Center’s cell harvesting and isolation techniques are based on technology from Korea. This new technological breakthrough allows patients to safely receive their own autologous stem cells in extremely large quantities. Our treatments and research are patient funded and we have endeavored successfully to make it affordable. All of our sterile procedures are non-invasive and done under local anesthesia. Patients who are looking for non-surgical alternatives to their degenerative disorders can participate in our trials by filling out our treatment application to determine if they are candidates. San Francisco Stem Cell Treatment Center is proud to be state of the art in the new field of Regenerative Medicine.
NonEmbryonic Adult Stem Cells
Adult (NonEmbryonic) Mesenchymal Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to replace dying cells and regenerate damaged tissue. These special cells seek out areas of injury, disease and destruction where they are capable of regenerating healthy cells and enabling a person’s natural healing processes to be accelerated. As we gain a deeper understanding of their medical function and apply this knowledge, we are realizing their enormous therapeutic potential to help the body heal itself. Adult stem cells have been used for a variety of medical treatments to repair and regenerate acute and chronicially damaged tissues in humans and animals. The use of stem cells is not FDA approved for the treatment of any specific disease in the United States at this time and their use is therefore investigational. Many reputable international centers have been using stem cell therapy to treat various chronic degenerative conditions as diverse as severe neurologic diseases, renal failure, erectile dysfunction, degenerative orthopedic problems, and even cardiac and pulmonary diseases to name a few. Adult stem cells appear to be particularly effective at repairing cartilage in degenerated joints.
What is regenerative Medicine?
Regenerative Medicine is the process of creating living, functional tissues to repair or replace tissue or organ function lost due to damage, or congenital defects. This field holds the promise of regenerating damaged tissues and organs in the body by stimulating previously irreparable organs to heal themselves. (Wikipedia)
What is a Stem Cell?
A stem cell is basically any cell that can replicate and differentiate. This means the cell can not only multiply, it can turn into different types of tissues. There are different kinds of stem cells. Most people are familiar with or have heard the term “embryonic stem cell.” These are cells from the embryonic stage that have yet to differentiate – as such, they can change into any body part at all. These are then called “pluri-potential” cells. Because they are taken from unborn or unwanted embryos, there has been considerable controversy surrounding their use. Also, while they have been used in some areas of medicine – particularly, outside the United States – they have also been associated with occasional tumor (teratoma) formations. There is work being conducted by several companies to isolate particular lines of embryonic stem cells for future use. Another kind of stem cell is the “adult stem cell.” This is a stem cell that already resides in one’s body within different tissues. In recent times, much work has been done isolating bone-marrow derived stem cells. These are also known as “mesenchymal stem cells” because they come from the mesodermal section of your body. They can differentiate into bone and cartilage, and probably all other mesodermal elements, such as fat, connective tissue, blood vessels, muscle and nerve tissue. Bone marrow stem cells can be extracted and because they are low in numbers, they are usually cultured in order to multiply their numbers for future use. As it turns out, fat is also loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. In fact, it has hundreds if not thousands of times more stem cells compared to bone marrow. Today, we actually have tools that allow us to separate the stem cells from fat. Because most people have adequate fat supplies and the numbers of stem cells are so great, there is no need to culture the cells over a period of days and they can be used right away.
How do Adult Stem Cells Heal?
These adult stem cells are known as “progenitor” cells. This means they remain dormant (do nothing) unless they witness some level of tissue injury. It’s the tissue injury that turns them on. So, when a person has a degenerative type problem, the stem cells tend to go to that area of need and stimulate the healing process. We’re still not sure if they simply change into the type of injured tissue needed for repair or if they send out signals that induces the repair by some other mechanism. Suffice it to say that there are multiple animal models and a plethora of human evidence that indicates these are significant reparative cells.
What Diseases and Problems can be Treated?
This will depend on the type of degenerative condition you have. A specialist will evaluate you and discuss whether you’re a potential candidate for stem cell therapy. If after you’ve been recommended for treatment, had an opportunity to understand the potential risks and benefits, and decided on your own that you would like to explore this avenue of treatment, then you can be considered for treatment. Of course, even though it’s a minimally invasive procedure, you will still need to be medically cleared for the procedure.
Is Our Procedure FDA-approved?
NO. However, San Francisco Stem Cell Treatment Center’s procedures fall under the category of physician’s practice of medicine, wherein the physician and patient are free to consider their chosen course of treatment. The FDA does have guidelines about treatment and manipulation of a patient’s own tissues. At SFSCTC we meet these guidelines by providing same day treatment with the patient’s own cells that undergo very minimal manipulation and are inserted during the same procedure.
Does San Francisco Stem Cell Treatment Center use any Embryonic Stem Cells?
No. Only adult mesenchymal stem cells are used. These cells are capable of forming bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, ligaments, blood vessels, and certain organs. Embryonic stem cells are associated with ethical considerations and limitations.
Why Does SFSCTC Take a Multispecialty Treatment Approach to Regenerative Medicine?
Patients suffer from many varieties of degenerative illnesses. There may be conditions associated with nearly all aspects of the body. Board certified specialists are ideal to evaluate, recommend and/or treat, and subsequently follow your progress. Together, through the SFSCTC, we work to coordinate and provide therapy – mainly with your own stem cells, but also through other avenues of regenerative medicine. This could include hormone replacement therapy or other appropriate recommendations. For example, if you have a knee problem, you would see SFSCTC’s Board Certified orthopedic surgeon rather than a generic “clinic director.” Also, you might be recommended for evaluation for hormone replacement therapy or an exercise program should such be considered optimal. Nonetheless, we believe stem cell therapy to be the likely foundation for regenerative treatment. It should also be noted, that all treatments are currently in the investigational stage. While we recognize our patients are seeking improvement in their condition through stem cell therapy, each treatment is part of an ongoing investigation to establish optimal parameters for treatment, to evaluate for effectiveness and for any adverse effects. It is essential that patients understand they are participating in these investigational (research) analyses. Once sufficient information is appropriately documented and statistically significant, then data (validated by an Institutional Review Board) may be presented to the FDA for consideration of making an actual claim.
What Types of Specialties are Represented at SFSCTC
Urology, cosmetic surgery, ear, nose, & throat, orthopedics, internal medicine and cardiology are represented. Plans are currently being made for a number of other specialties. San Francisco Stem Cell Treatment Center is an affiliate of the first multispecialty stem cell center in the United States.
Why do Patients Request Stem Cell Treatment?
Many have been told that they require surgery or other risky treatments for their ailments and are looking for non-invasive options. Some have heard about the compelling testimonials about stem cells in the literature and on various websites. Many have read about the results of stem cell treatments in animal models and in humans. SFSCTC gives a choice to those informed patients who seek modern regenerative therapy but desire convenience, quality and affordability. SFSCTC fills a need for those patients who have been told that they have to travel to different countries and pay as much as twenty to one hundred thousand dollars for stem cell treatments off shore.
Once a Candidate is selected for treatment, how does SFSCTC Obtain a Person’s Stem Cells?
Stem cells are harvested and deployed during the same procedure. Our patients undergo a minimally-invasive liposuction type of harvesting procedure. The harvesting procedure generally lasts a few minutes and can be done under local anesthesia. Cells are then processed and are ready for deployment within 90 minutes or less.
Why Does SFSCTC use Liposuction Fat Rather Than Bone Marrow as a Source of Stem Cells?
Bone marrow sampling (a somewhat uncomfortable procedure) yields approximately 5,000 – 60,000 cells that are then cultured over several days to perhaps a few million cells prior to deployment (injection into the patient). Recent advances in stem cell science have made it possible to obtain high numbers of very excellent quality multi-potent (able to form numerous other tissues) cells from a person’s own liposuction fat. SFSCTC uses technology acquired from Asia to process this fat to yield approximately five hundred thousand to one million stem cells per cc of fat, and therefore, it is possible to obtain as many as 10 to 40 million cells from a single treatment. These adipose derived stem cells can form many different types of cells when deployed properly including bone, cartilage, tendon (connective tissue), muscle, blood vessels, nerve tissue and others.
How is Fat Obtained?
SFSCTC patients have their fat (usually abdominal) harvested in our special sterile treatment facility under a local anesthetic. The fat removal procedure lasts approximately twenty minutes. Specially designed equipment is used to harvest the fat cells and less than 100cc of fat is required. Post operative discomfort is minimal and there is minimal restriction on activity.
How Does SFSCTC Control Sterility in the Processing of the Stem Cells?
Stem cells are harvested under sterile conditions using a special “closed system” technology so that the cells never come into contact with the environment throughout the entire process from removal to deployment. Sterile technique and antibiotics are also used to prevent infection.
Does SFSCTC use Stem Cells From any Other Animal Source or Person?
No. Only a person’s own adult autologous cells are used. These are harvested from each individual and deployed back into their own body. There is no risk of contamination or risk of introduction of mammalian DNA into the treatments.
Why do Some Stem Cell Facilities Around the World Require Days to Weeks Before Removal of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Until Reinsertion into the Patient?
These facilities are obtaining stem cells from bone marrow or blood in relatively small quantities and they are then culturing (growing) the cells to create adequate quantities. Research seems to indicate that success of treatment is directly related to the quantity of cells injected. SFSCTC uses adipose derived stem cells that are abundant naturally at approximately 2,500 times levels found in bone marrow (the most common source of mesenchymal stem cells). SFSCTC uses technology that isolates adipose stem cells in vast numbers in a short time span so that prolonged culturing is unnecessary and cells can be deployed into a patient within 90 minutes of harvesting.
Some Stem Cell Treatment Centers Make Extraordinary Claims About Their Success in the Treatment of Various Problems. Why Doesn’t SFSCTC?
SFSCTC is doing pioneer research and treatment of many diseases. All investigational data is being collected so that results will be published in peer review literature and ultimately used to promote the advancement of cellular based regenerative medicine. FDA regulations mandate that no advertising medical claims be made and that even website testimonials are prohibited.
Can Stem Cells Treat Cancer?
No. Many are confused by this because they have heard of cancer patients receiving “stem cell transplants.” These patients had ablative bone marrow therapy and need stem cells to re-populate their blood and marrow. This is different from the stem cells we deploy to treat noncancerous human diseases at SFSCTC.
Can Stem Cells Cause Cancer?
Adult mesenchymal stem cells are not known to cause cancer. Some patients have heard of stories of cancer caused by stem cells, but these are probably related to the use of embryonic cells (Not Adult Mesenchymal Cells). These embryonic tumors known as teratomas are rare but possible occurrences when embryonic cells are used.
What About Patients with Known Cancers?
Stem cell therapy is thought to be safe and not affect dormant cancers. If someone has had cancer that was treated and responded successfully, there is know reason to withhold stem cell deployment. In most cases, stem cells should not be used in patients with known active cancer.
Are There Reports of Autologous Adipose Derived Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Harming Any Humans or Animals?
We know of no documented cases personally or in the literature where serious harm has resulted. All of our patients will be entered into a database to follow and report any adverse reactions. This information is vital to the development of stem cell science. There have been a few reports of serious complications from overseas and these are being thoroughly evaluated by epidemiologists to ascertain the facts. The International Stem Cell Society registry has over 1,000 cases currently registered and only 2% of the treatments were associated with any complications, none of which were considered “serious adverse events.”
What Claims Are Currently Made By SFSCTC About What Stem Cell Therapy Can do for You?
None. Our aim is to make cell based medicine available to patients who are interested and to provide ongoing research data under approved Institutional Review Board (IRB) validated studies. We will follow our stem cell treatment patients over their lifetimes. This will enable us to accumulate significant data about the various degenerative diseases we treat. Instead of providing simply anecdotal or testimonial information, our goal is to categorize the various conditions and follow the patient’s progress through various objective (e.g. x-ray evidence or video displays) and subjective (e.g. patient and/or doctor surveys) criteria. We are aware of a lot of stories about marked improvement of a variety of conditions, but we make no claims about the intended treatment. At some point, once adequate amounts of data are accumulated, it might be appropriate to submit the information to the FDA at which point an actual claim may be substantiated and recognized by the Agency. Still, these are your own cells and not “medicines” for sale. They are only being used in your own body. Most likely, no claim needs to be made; rather a statistical analysis of our findings would suffice to suggest whether treatments are truly and significantly effective. We also hope to submit our patient’s data to an approved International Registry (See ICMS Stem Cell Registry) further fostering large collections of data to help identify both positive and negative trends.
Are Any Biological Agents Added to the Stem Cells such as Medications or Mixtures Containing Plasma Enriched Platelets?
Our adipose derived stem cell harvesting and isolation technique yields extremely high numbers of stem cells. In reviewing outcomes data, treatment cell numbers appear to correlate with treatment success. Our cells are actually in a type of “soup” called Stromal Vascular Fraction SVF which is stem cells bathed in a rich mixture of natural growth factors (Not the same as human growth factor hormone which is only one type of growth factor). Some types of orthopedic and urologic diseases appear to respond better to stem cells that are super enriched with growth factors created by administering Platelet Rich Plasma to the patient. Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma is derived from a patient’s own blood drawn at the time of deployment. At SFSCTC we do not add any foreign substances or medications to the stem cells.
How Are the Cells Deployed into the Patient?
Depending on the type of treatment required, stem cells can be injected through veins, arteries, into spinal fluid, subcutaneously, or directly into joints or organs. All of these are considered minimally invasive methods of introducing the stem cells. Stem cells injected intravenously are known to “seek out and find” areas of tissue damage and migrate to that location thus potentially providing regenerative healing. Intravenously injected stem cells have been shown to have the capability of crossing the “blood-brain barrier” to enter the central nervous system and they can be identified in the patient’s body many months after deployment. Note yellow arrow showing the stem cells concentrated in the patient’s hand where he had a Dupytren’s contracture (Dupuytren’s contracture is a hand deformity that causes the tissue beneath the surface of the hand to thicken and contract).
Can I be Expected to Improve After Stem Cell Treatment at SFSCTC?
Different conditions are treated in different ways and there are different degrees of success. If the goal is regeneration of joint cartilage, one may not see expected results until several months after treatment. Some patients may not experience significant improvement and others may see dramatic regeneration of damaged tissue or resolution of disease. Many of the disorders and problems that the physicians at SFSCTC are treating represent pioneering work and there is a lack of data. FDA regulations prevent SFSCTC from making any claims about expectations for success, however, if you are chosen for treatment, it will be explained that we believe stem cell therapy may be beneficial or in some cases that we are unsure and treatment would be considered investigational.
How Long Does it Take to See Improvement?
Stem cell therapy relies on the body’s own regenerative healing to occur. The regenerative process may take time, particularly with orthopedic patients, who may not see results for several months. In some diseases, more immediate responses are possible.
Is Everyone a Candidate?
No. Only certain medical problems are currently being treated at SFSCTC. Check our list or fill out a candidate application form on the website. All patients need to be medically stable enough to have the treatment in our facility. There may be some exceptional conditions that may eventually be treated in hospitalized patients, but that remains for the future. Some patients may be declined due to the severity of their problem. Other patients may not have conditions appropriate to treat or may not be covered by our specialists or our protocols. A waiting list or outside referral (if we know of someone else treating such a problem) might be applicable in such cases.
Are Any Patients Automatically Excluded?
Yes. Patients with uncontrolled cancer are excluded. If you have an active infection anywhere in your body you must be treated first. Severely ill patients may require special consideration. Also, anyone with a bleeding disorder or who takes blood thinning medications requires special evaluation before consideration for stem cells.
Who Decides Who is Eligible?
The specialist seeing you at SFSCTC will make a determination based on your history and exam, studies, and current research findings. Any complex cases may be reviewed by our ethics advisory committee. Occasionally, we may seek opinions from thought leaders around the world.
Does a Candidate Have to Participate in Research to Receive Treatment at SFSCTC?
No. Participation in any of our protocols is not mandatory and there are no incentives, financial or otherwise, to induce patients to enroll in our studies. However, SFSCTC is dedicated to clinical research for the development of stem cell science. SFSCTC is taking an active role in cutting edge clinical research in the new field of regenerative medicine. Research studies will be explained and privacy will be maintained. Formal future research studies will be regulated by an Institutional Review Board which is an authorized agency that promotes validity, transparency and protection of human study enrollees.
What are Some Diseases That SFSCTC is Definitely Not Treating at this Time?
At this time, we are not treating autism, spinal cord injuries, and some advanced diseases.
What Are the Costs of Consultation and Treatment?
Patients who are considered to be candidates based on information provided in the candidate application form will be invited for a consultation with one of our panel physicians. Consults are generally in the range of $500-$800, and are based on time spent with the practitioner. However, if you receive the stem cell treatment, we would deduct the consultation fee from the final payment. Unfortunately, insurance generally will not cover the actual cost of stem cell treatment in most cases since stem cell therapy is still considered experimental. The cost varies depending on the disease state being treated and which type of stem cell deployment is required.
What Does the Cost of the Procedure Include?
Because of recent innovations in technology, SFSCTC is able to provide outpatient stem cell treatment at a fraction of the cost of that seen in many overseas clinics. The fee covers fat cell harvesting, cell preparation, and stem cell deployment which may include the use of ultrasound or advanced interventional radiology and fluoroscopy techniques. Financing is available through a credit vendor.
Can Extra Stem Cells be Saved For Future Use Should an Immediate Need Arise?
Stem cells can be cryopreserved in the form of liposuction fat for prolonged periods of time. Currently, this service is outsourced to an outside provider known to have excellent quality control. Many patients have been inquiring about banking cells while they are still young since stem cell numbers drop naturally with each decade of life and some advocate obtaining and saving cells to be used later in life as needed.
How Many Injections are Required for Success?
Most patients, especially those with orthopedic conditions, require only one deployment. Certain types of degenerative conditions, particularly auto-immune disease, may respond best to a series of stem cell deployments. The number and necessity of any additional treatments would be decided on a case by case basis. Financial consideration is given in these instances.
How Can I Obtain This Procedure?
At this time, the cost of experimental stem cell treatments is not covered by insurance companies. We believe that our research is university quality. We are patient funded and we have no source of grants or pharmaceutical company funding. Although we are a “for-profit” organization, our goal is not to patent stem cell technology for corporate profit but rather to learn the medical potential of these cells and contribute to the science of regenerative medicine. We have set our fees very reasonably, (and considerably lower than centers outside the U.S.) to lower the threshold of access to stem cell medicine. Our fee includes harvesting, isolating cells and deployment of your own cells.
The Cell Surgical Network is proud to have published one of the largest peer reviewed safety data papers on the use of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF) to date.
This patient was treated for several issues including Multiple Sclerosis and this is her at 6 months later, participating in a marathon.
“At this point, we should also clarify the terminology regarding the source of SVF cells. In the vast majority of scientific publications only the term adipose tissue is used, but the true source of SVF cells is not the adipose part but only the stromal (ie. loose connective tissue) part of the fat obtained typically by liposuction. Histologically, the fat lobules are surrounded by a loose connective tissue and the SVF cells reside in the loose connective tissue that also home capillaries and small vessels. Stroma is a broadly used term for the loose connective tissue that contains mesenchymal stem cells and other cells like fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes, mast cells and leukocytes. Synovia of articulated joints is also intimately associated with the loose connective tissue which is homologous to the loose connective tissue of the adipose tissue. Thus, in our clinical study we were aiming to enrich the population of stem and other regenerative cells in a close proximity to damaged cartilage.”
READ THE FULL STUDY Michalek SVF for people with OA Cell Transplant 2015